Country of Origin

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The 1850s Victorian goldfields population was one of the most cosmopolitan places in Australia and comprising many nationalities. All inhabitants lived under the British legal system, and many being foreigners or reformists were displeased with the laws governing them. Some had fled troubles in Continental Europe and elsewhere, and had witnessed the results of oppressive tyrants and governments. Some had been Chartists following enlightened views in their homelands, and did not want to be repressed once again. [1]

James Madden wrote in 1904:

... One thing that pains me, and to which I must give an emphatic denial, is a statement that the fight was only shared by one section of the population. I say, from an intimate knowledge of events, that Englishmen, Irishmen, Scotchmen,and men from other European countries, fought together and so did men of every religion. My family are Ulster-Protestants, and the latter are not usually weak in their faith, and we had many friends, also strict Irish Protestants, who fought and died side by side-with men of all other creeds; among them Irish Catholics. The struggle was one in which all religions united, so great was the oppression; and so strong was the desire to gain for Australia the freedom we have to-day. I cannot under stand how men who claim to he comrades of those who died can so traduce their memory, unless they belonged to the spies on Ballarat at the time. ...[2]

Eureka - A Multicultural Event

Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni

The Victorian goldfields boasted a community comprising a large number of different nationalities, as well as people holding multifarious political and religious views. It is therefore not surprising to discover the large number of cultures involved at the Eureka uprising.

The following list was compiled from The Eureka Encyclopaedia (Corfield/Wickham/Gervasoni) and Women of the Diggings: Ballarat 1854 (D. Wickham)

AUSTRALIA Francis Henry Bentley (born 1853 Victoria), John Black (born c1845 Victoria), James Carroll (b1844 Victoria), Mark Carroll (b1846 Victoria), Thomas Carroll (b1851 Victoria), Thomas Dignam (born NSW) tried for treason, James Hall (b1843 Barrabool Hills ), Charlotte Hodges (b1854 Victoria), Charles Howes (born c1836 Tasmania), Thomas Barker Hunt (b1828 Parramatta, NSW), John Kinnane (b1854 Eureka Diggings, Ballarat East), Montague David Miller (b1839 Tasmania), John O'Neil (b1849 Victoria), John Carroll O'Neil (b1853 Victoria), Mary O'Neil (b1850 Victoria), Richard O'Neil (b1847 Victoria), William Quinlan (born NSW), Thomas Wright (b1822 Hobartown, Tasmania).

CANADA Robert Julien (died of wounds), Charles Henry Ross (killed), Charles Doudiet, John Robinson, Thomas Budden, Edward Henry Majenty Mount, Edward Macarthur (served in Canada), Charles MacMahon (served in Canada), Robert Nickle (served in Canada), Charles Pasley (served in Canada), Henry Chapman (had lived in Canada, Samuel Douglas Smyth Huyghue, Scott


CORNWALL Peter Ellis, John Penneluna, Joseph Penrose, James Wearne, Patience Wearne

CORSICA Francis John Romeo (Le Fronzis De Romeu)

DENMARK Erick Jorgenole Rasmussen

ENGLAND James Ashburner, Alfred Black (Ballarat Reform League), George Black (Ballarat Reform League),William Harvey Boase, William Walton (Baron) Bell, James Beattie (tried for treason), George Clifton (killed), Thomas Cox, Frederick London Coxhead (died of wounds), Samuel Green (killed), John Hanlon Knipe, James Montague Smith, John Wellesley Thomas, James Wiburd (or Wyburd), William Wood.

FINLAND Isaac Mattson

FRANCE Delprat, Antoine Julien Fauchery, Le Pere Duprat, Gillot, Peter Priaulx, Thomas Decueur, James Harrison (son born Calais, France)

GERMANY/PRUSSIA Edward Thonen (killed), Henry Brandt, Johann Brandt, William Augustus Heise, Thomas Henfield (killed), John Hafele (killed), Adolphus Lessman, John Herman Frederich Spanake, Herman Steinman, Frederick William Tauschke, Frederick Vern, Warnecke, Conrad Zillies

GREECE Natale D'Angri (born to Italian parents)

GUERNSEY Jean (John) Le Maitre

HOLLAND Cornelius Peters, Jan Vennick (tried for treason)

ITALY Joseph Barberis, Antonio Capuano, Raffaello Carboni (tried for treason), Oravalno, Antonio Polinelli, Francesco Rappacioli.

IRELAND Hugh Brady (Ballarat Reform League), James Brown (died of wounds), Michael Canny, John Crowe (killed), Patrick Malone Curtain, Michael Callinan, John Dunlop, John Dynan, Martin Diamond (killed), John Thomas Dalton, George Donaghey (killed), Henry Gittins (killed), John Esmond, Timothy Hayes (tried for treason), Patrick Daniel Howard, John Hynes (killed), Peter Lalor, Morgan Lee, Edward Quinn (killed), Michael Hanrahan, John Lynch, Michael Gleeson, Thaddeus Moore, (killed), Michael Tuohy (tried for treason), John Torpy, Michael O'Neil, E. O'Mahony, Michael O'Brien, Michael Mullins (killed), Edward McGlynn (killed), John Manning (tried for treason), William John Madden, Abbott Lewis, Patrick Sheedy, Luke Sheehan, George Gilmore, Matthew Gavin


NORWAY John Forssman

NOVA SCOTIA John Robinson, Robert Julien

POLAND Manasha Flatow

PORTUGAL Antonio Francesco Nida

RUSSIA William Emmerman (killed)

SCOTLAND Alfred William Crowe, Thomas Kennedy, Hugh Meikle, John Robertson (killed), Henry Sutherland, Alexander McLaren, Robert Watson.


SWEDEN Jacob Soranson, Andrew Swanson, Maurice Linquist

SWITZERLAND Charles Louis Sublet, Henry Alexander De Brot.

UNITED STATES Burnete, Francis Carey, John Clarke, Charles Derius Ferguson, George Hartley, Albert Hurd, John Josephs (tried for treason), Charles Kenworthy, Meredith Kerr, James McGill, Isaac Mattson, William Melody, Nealson (Nelson), Smith, James Munroe Tarleton, George Francis Train, George E. Young

WALES John Basson Humffray (Ballarat Reform League), Llewellyn Rowlands (killed)

WEST INDIA John McFie Campbell (tried for treason)

Further information on the Eureka Stockade can be found in the books Women of the Diggings: Ballarat 1854 and the award winning The Eureka Encyclopaedia, both published by BHS Publishing.




























United States of America


West Indies


  1. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  2. West Australian, 2 November 1904,