United States of America

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Poster
Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services.
Samuel Thomas Gill, Refreshment Shanty, Ballarat, 1854, watercolour and gum arabic on paper.
Art Gallery of Ballarat, gift from the Estate of Lady Currie, 1963.

Background

Many Americans on Victoria's goldfield had experienced the Californian goldfields of 1849 bringing with them technical experience for winning gold from the ground.[1]


... The insurgents, we learn, are all with very few exceptions, diggers, and we regret to hear it re ported, that very many of them are French Americans, and Germans. Our informant tells us that great intimidation is used by those under arms towards the quiet, peaceful, and industrious diggers, no work being allowed, and any man seen going into his hole being threatened with the consequences. ...[2]


ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE. THE GOVERNOR AND THE FOREIGNERS.
To the Editor of the Argus.
Sir, — The rumors which are in circulation about the partiality of the Governor towards the Americans implicated in the late outbreak have assumed a shape so definite that it is high time for the press, if not the Governor himself, to take notice of them. British citizens naturally ask, Why is so much severity used towards them, and so much clemency towards the Americans. es it proceed from fear on the part of the Governor, or from his accessibility to the flatteries of a few smooth-tongued Yankees? For several weeks I have heard this subject freely talked of in every circle which I have visited. At first I treated it as one of the flying rumors to which excitement gives birth ; but now I am inclined to think that there is something in it. The following cases of partiality have been specifically referred to, and it is time that they should be sifted :—
1. —— imprisoned at Geelong for sly-grog selling, pardoned by the Governor avowedly as an inducement to the Americans at Ballaarat to keep quiet during the agitation. This case was made public by the Governor himself in a way which suggested very painful reflections in the minds of many as to his Excellency's boasted "honesty" and good sense.
2. —— arrested, along with Fletcher, M'Intyre, and Westerby, for setting fire to Bentley's Hotel, and with them committed for trial. It was re- marked, however, that he was not tried, and, on inquiry, it was found he was an American. For this case the Attorney-General may be held responsible.
3. —— was caught fighting in the Eureka Stockade, and carried to the Camp. Had the command of a company, and held the rank of sergeant. Was engaged in drilling the diggers during the agitation. Sergeant —— has not been committed for trial. He, too, is an American.
4. ——, commonly called "General ——," drilled the diggers during the memorable three days prior to the Eureka affair, during that time sported Commissioner Amos's horse. Boasts of having shot Captain Wise. Is known to the Government, but has not been apprehended. He says that he has got an amnesty for himself from the Governor, and that since his case has been referred to, he has received a hint from the Governor to make himself scarce.
I state these particulars as they are circulated, and as I believe they can be proved. They require no comment.
They do no injury to the Americans, who are likely to feel themselves highly flattered by being singled out for such distinguished consideration. What does his Excellency say to these accusations? How does he reconcile such conduct with his famous inaugural speech, when he vowed that he would turn neither to the right hand nor to the left? If these reports were confined to a limited circle, I should not ask you to publish them , but, as they are the talk of the town, they should be either authoritatively contradicted or, if true, the Governor should be taken to task.
A BRITISH CITIZEN.
January 20th, 1825.[3]

American Connections with the Eureka Stockade

Eureka Stockade by Beryl Ireland, c1995. State Library of Victoria (H141890)
This work is an over-painted photographic print, photographed by an unknown photographer from the painted canvas by Izett Watson and American Thaddeus Welch, which was exhibited as a painted cyclorama in the 'Battle of Waterloo' Cyclorama building, Fitzroy, ca. 1891. This is based on the evidence that the pulleys and brick wall are discernible at the top edge of the image which B. Ireland has not over-painted.

At the Royal Commission into the Gold Fields Commissioner Rede was asked whether 'there were many Americans passing between the diggers and the Camp, either giving information or in any other way aiding the rioters'. John Pascoe Fawkner, the American member of the Commission then reframed the question. "There were two or three Americans who were constantly in the habit of coming up to the Camp, professing to give information?" Commissioner Rede replied that it was Charles Kenworthy who gave him information about the quartz veins. Kenworthy, a doctor, offered his expertise to the stockaders. He tried to dissuade his countrymen from participating in the battle. William Bramwell Withers asserts that Kenworthy was present at the writing of the Reform League Charter, a 'declaration of independence'. [4]


Edward Browne

James Brown

Davis Calwell

Francis Carey

John Clarke

Freeman Cobb

Catherine Crossman

Harry De Longville, born Fort Askansas

John Emery

Charles Ferguson[5]

George Hartley[6]

William Hartley

Albert Hurd

John Kelly

Charles Kenworthy[7]

John Joseph[8]

James McGill, born Boston[9]

Andrew Mayo

William Melody[10]

Thomas Nelson

John Reed

John M. Peck

Celia Scott[11]

Edward Shanahan

George Train[12], Boston, Massachusetts.

James Tarleton, born New Castle, Rockingham, New Hampshire. [13]

Aluson Ward

Thaddeus Welch

George Young, born Newbury, Massachusetts

Also See

Country of Origin

Many people dug for gold in California before sailing to Australia.

California

Independent Californian Rangers Revolver Brigade

External Links

http://prov.vic.gov.au/whats-on/exhibitions/eureka-on-trial/perspectives

References

  1. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  2. Cornwall Chronicle Launceston, 09 December 1854.
  3. Argus, 22 January 1855.
  4. American Republicanism and the Victorian Goldfields
  5. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  6. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  7. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  8. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  9. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  10. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  11. Dorothy Wickham, Women of the Diggings: Ballarat 1854, BHS Publishing, 2009
  12. Eureka - A Multicultural Event by Dorothy Wickham and Clare Gervasoni, https://ballaratheritage.com.au/article/eureka-a-multicultural-affair/ accessed 22 February 2019.
  13. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.