Maurice Ximenes

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Walter E. Pidgeon, Illustration from The Eureka Stockade by Raffaello Carboni, Sunnybrook Press, 1942, offset print.
Art Gallery of Ballarat, purchased 1994.
"Official form on blue paper - evidence - Maurice Ximenes, sub-inspector police, 27 October 1854, p.1, PROV, VPRS5527/P0 Unit 1, Item 90
Be it remembered, that on 27th day of October in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and fifty four Maurice Frederick Ximines of Ballarat in the Colony of Victoria Sub-Inspector of Police personally came before me one of Her Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the said Colony, and acknowledged himself to owe to our Sovereign Lady the Queen the sum of one hundred pounds, of good lawful money of Great Britain, to be made and levied of the goods and chattels, lands and tenements, in the use of our said Lady the Queen, her Heirs and Successors, if the said Maurice Frederick Ximines shall fail in the condition indorsed.
Taken and acknowledged the day and year of your first above mentioned at Ballarat in the said Colony before me
E.P.S.Sturt JP
"Official form on blue paper - evidence - Maurice Frederick Ximenes, sub-inspector police, 27 October 1854, p.2, PROV, VPRS5527/P0 Unit 1, Item 90
The condition of the within written Recognizance is such, That Whereas Henry Westerby alias Yorky this day charged before me a Justice of the Peace within mentioned, for that he the said Henry Westerby alias Yorkie was the Seventeenth day of October 1854 at Ballarat in the Colony aforesaid, did with other persons riotously and tumultuously assemble, and did then and there, feloniously burn, pull down and destroy the dwelling of one James Francis Bentley it therefore be the said Maurice Frederick Ximenes, Constable shall appear at the Supreme Court of Criminal Sessions to be holden at Melbourne in and for the Colony of Victoria, on the fifteenth day of November A.D., 1854, and there give such evidence as he knoweth upon an information to be then and there preferred against the said Henry Westerby alias Yorkey for the offence aforesaid, as the Jurors who shall pass upon the trial of the said Henry Westerby alias Yorkey then the said Recognizance to be void or else stand in full force and virtue.
"Depositions of witnesses Maurice Ximenes, John Dougherty, Gordon Evans, Robert Tulley, Cornelius Sorrell, Michael Murphy, and Edward Layton re Henry Westerby, 27 October 1854, PROV, VPRS5527/P0 Unit 1, Item 90

Victoria Ballarat(M.)
(11 and 12 Vic., c. 42)
To Wit
The Examination of Maurice Frederick Ximenes, John Dougherty, Gordon Evans, Robert Pulley, Cornelius Sorrell, Michael Murphy and Edward Layton of Ballarat in the said Colony of Victoria taken on oath, this 27th day of October, in the Year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four at Ballarat in the Colony aforesaid, before the undersigned two of Her Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said Colony, in the presence and hearing of Henry Westerby alias Yorkey Who is charged this day before us for that he the said Henry Westerby alias Yorkey, on the Seventeenth day of October 1854 at Ballarat in the Colony of Victoria aforesaid, together with other persons did tumultuously and Riotously assemble, and did then and there burn pull down and destroy the dwelling House of one James Francis Bentley.
This deponent Maurice Frederick Ximenes on his oath saith as follows
I am Sub Inspector of Police at Ballarat.
On the 17th Instant I was
"Deposition of Maurice Frederick Ximenes, 27 October 1854, p.1, PROV, VPRS5527/P0 Unit 1, Item 90

ordered to proceed, to Bentley’s Hotel a meeting had taken place in the Neighbourhood a crowd assembled in the front of the Hotel They were shooting and shouting, Prisoner Henry Westerby advanced to the front of the House by himself he struck the house with his clenched hand. He addressed the people, and proposed that Bentley’s House should belong to the Diggers – immediately
"Deposition of Maurice Frederick Ximenes, 27 October 1854, p.2, PROV, VPRS5527/P0 Unit 1, Item 90
after the mob commenced throwing stones.

Maurice Frederick Ximenes Sub Inspector
Sworn before us at Ballarat this 27 October 1854
"Queen v Henry Westerby, 27 October 1854, p.2, PROV, VPRS5527/P0 Unit 1, Item 90

Queen v Henry Westerby alias Yorkey
Witnesses Edward Layton, Michael Murphy, Cornelius Sorrell, Robert Pulley – constable Gordon Evans – Insp Police John Dougherty – con: Maurice Frederick Ximenes – Sub-Insp


Maurice Frederick Ximenes was born in 1817. He was the son of Dan Ximenes and Catherine Jackson. During the 1848 Carlist Revolution Ximenes served as a volunteer with the Spanish Army,[1] receiving a wound that required his return to England. [2] Ximenes joined the police with the rank of lieutenant in 1852, when the force was organised under William Mitchell.

He shortly afterwards came to Victoria and joined the police with the rank of lieutenant in 1852, when the force was organised under Mr (now Sir) William Mitchell.[3]

Zimenes married Annie Washington, and the had one son, Henry Washington, born in 1862 at Richmond. [4]

Ximenes died on 01 June 1883 at Prahran, Victoria. [5]

Goldfields Involvement, 1854

Ximenes was a Sub-inspector of police and commanded the Foot Police at Ballarat. He was present at the burning of Bentley’s Eureka Hotel on 17 October 1854 when 30,000 angry miners conducted a protest meeting. Ximenes had a number of police under his control hiding inside Bentley’s Eureka Hotel before the encounter, which led to the hotel’s destruction. Ximenes lent his horse to James Bentley so he could escape the crowd outside the hotel. The pregnant Mrs Catherine Bentley was left inside the hotel.[6]

Maurice Ximenes was also the inspector of slaughter houses 30 March 1854.

While in disguise he led reinforcements from Bacchus Marsh to Ballarat on 05 December 1854. Inspector Henry Foster stated that it would be dangerous for Ximenes to be “seen alone on the diggings.” Peter Martin, the friend of James Scobie, told Captain Evans and Ximenes that James Bentley was one of the men who killed James Scobie. [7] Ximenes was a witness examined during the report of the Board appointed to enquire into circumstances connected with the riot at Ballarat, and the burning of James Bentley's Eureka Hotel. [8]

A Digger Hunt, University of Ballarat Historical Collection (Cat.No. 4170)

Ximenes led the last license hunt on the Thursday morning before the Eureka Stockade battle on Sunday 03 December 1854. [9] [10]

"Maximines" was noted for "his good work in guiding the troops through hostile country to the Eureka stronghold. (that is, the Eureka Stockade) [11]

Ximenes gave evidence at the Eureka Treason Trials [12] and was examined at the 1855 Goldfields Commission.

Post 1854 Experiences

Maurice Ximenes was promoted for his actions during the Eureka Stockade. In 1872 he was appointed Superintendent. He moved to the country in 1876 and retired in 1878.[13]


The death of Mr Maurice Frederic Ximenes, formerly superintendent of The Victorian police, took place (says the "Argus") at Prahran on Monday morning. The deceased was 68 years old at the time of his death which resulted from disease of the heart. Mr Ximenes served in the Spanish army as an English volunteer during the Don Carlist rebellion in 1848, and received a wound which necessitated his return to England. He shortly afterwards came to Victoria and joined the police with the rank of lieutenant in 1852, when the force was organised under Mr (now Sir) William Mitchell. He occupied various important positions until the Eureka outbreak at Ballarat, when he rode to Melbourne in one day with an important dispatch to the Governor, and performed other acts of devotion for which he received promotion. Ximenes did duty in various parts of the colony till 1872, when he was placed in charge of the city to succeed Superintendent Lyttleton, and after five years service he was again transferred to the 'country districts. In consequence of illness Mr. Ximenes retired from the force on a pension in 1878.[14]

In The News

The exciting events of the last few days have been of such nature as to deserve special attention in your columns, embracing, in the short space of two days, one of the most daring and extensive robberies that has yet occurred in these colonies, and the most deliberate and most deter- mined expression of public resentment against in- justice that has yet graced or disgraced the annals of Australia.
One James Scobie was brutally murdered on the morning of the 7th inst., near Bentley's Eureka Hotel. The evidence adduced at the inquest bore strongly against some of the members of Bentley's establishment, and, in consequence, Bentley and two others were arrested on the Monday following, and admitted to bail of £1000 each. On Thursday, the 12th inst., they were examined before the police magistrate, Mr. Dewes, and the commissioners, Messrs. Rede and Johnston. The evidence against them was pretty strong, and the general expectation was, that they would be committed. However, the decision of the magistrates was, that there was not the shadow of a case against Mr. Bentley, and that he, as well as the others, were honorably discharged. The decision was received with groans and hisses, and it was evident that great dissatisfaction existed in the public mind. Rumors prejudicial to the character of the Bench, and which we forbear to mention, spread abroad, and it was evident that the matter was not to be allowed to rest without further investigation. A public meeting was announced to be held on Tuesday, near the spot where Scobie was murdered. It is necessary to mention that Bentley's hotel had acquired a very bad name throughout the diggings, numerous robberies having occurred in it since its establishment; and complaints were general, that though a favorite resort of thieves and Vandemonians, the establishment seemed to be under the protection of some of the Camp authorities, as no notice was taken of its well-known irregularities. This explanation will, in some measure, account for the spirit evinced at its destruction.
The business of the meeting was to commence at twelve o'clock, and long before that hour an immense number of people were on the spot. A strong body of foot-police, under Sub-Inspector Ximenes, was posted in the hotel, and the mounted troopers, under Captain Evans, were stationed in an adjacent hollow. When the chair was taken, about 3000 people were present, which increased to 5000 before the termination of the meeting.
Charles A. Doudiet, watercolour on paper, 1854, watercolour, on paper.
Courtesy Art Gallery of Ballarat, purchased by the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery with the assistance of many donors, 1996.
The following is a correct copy of the resolutions moved at the meeting, which throughout was conducted in a temperate, judicious, and creditable manner: —
1. Moved by Mr. William Corkhill, seconded by Mr. James R. Thomson —
That this meeting, not feeling satisfied with the manner in which the proceedings connected with the death of the late James Scobie have been conducted, either by the magistrates or by the coroner, pledges itself to use every lawful means to have the case brought before other and more competent authorities; and to effect this object do forward a petition embodying the facts of the case for the consideration of the Lieutenant Governor.
Carried unanimously.
2. Moved by Mr. Alexander M. P. Grant, seconded by Mr. Archibald Carmichael
That this meeting views with mingled feelings of indignation and surprise the address in favor of Mr. Bentley, which appeared in the Ballaarat Times of Saturday last, and begs to express its total dissent from the sentiments therein conveyed.
Carried without a dissentient voice.
3. Moved by Mr. Thomas Kennedy, seconded by Mr. Angus Sutherland
That this meeting deems it necessary to collect subscriptions for the purpose of offering a reward for the conviction of the murderer or murderers and defraying all other expenses connected with the prosecution of the case.
Mr. Kennedy, in moving this resolution, made an eloquent and powerful speech. The motion was also carried without one dissentient voice.
Number four, moved by Mr. Stephen Cumming, seconded by Mr. Blair —
That a committee of seven be appointed, to carry out the views of the meeting, as embodied in the foregoing resolutions, and that Peter Lalor, James R. Thomson, John W. Gray, Thomas D. Wanliss, William Corkhill, Alexander M. P. Grant and Archibald Carmichael form said committee, with power to add to their number. Three to form a quorum.
Carried unanimously.
It is impossible to exaggerate the unanimity displayed by the meeting: the vast assemblage seemed animated by one desired. After the meeting was dissolved a number proceeded towards Bentley's hotel, and were immediately followed by the Commissioners and some mounted troopers. It is a matter of speculation whether the meeting would not have dispersed peaceably had this course not been taken by the authorities. When the horsemen were seen to proceed towards the hotel, numbers that were then on their way home arrested their steps to see what "was up." The police being very unpopular on account of their late numerous license "raids," came in for the first share of public wrath. They were "joeyed" most perseveringly. The first proceedings against the hotel were of a very simple nature, gravel being "chucked" at the windows; but after a few panes of glass were broken the appetite for destruction seemed to increase, and a continued shower of stones, bottle, and billets of wood, was kept up on the building till every window was broken. About twenty minutes after the commencement of the fray Bentley, without hat or coat, escaped on horseback from the back yard, galloped to the Camp at a great rate, pursued by the execrations of the multitude. About this time an additional body of troopers was ordered up by Captain Evans, who exercised great discretion at this critical period, and several orderlies were despatched to the Camp to hasten the arrival of the Military. Meanwhile the work of destruction went on rapidly, and it became evident that the total destruction of the building was determined on. The mob got inside and began to destroy the furniture. On the arrival of the military a strong party was stationed in the bowling-alley, behind the main building, but the mob were so daring and determined as completely to defy them.
About half-past two or three o'clock in the afternoon, and when the crowd had increased to about 8000 or 10,000, a man carried an armful of paper and rags to the windward end of the bowling-alley, and placing them under the calico covering, deliberately struck a match and fired the building, in the presence of the Military. The cool and resolute manner in which every-thing was carried on, resembled more the proceedings of the "Porteus mob" than of anything of the kind that has occurred since. When the building was fired, they immediately upset the water-cask, to prevent it from being used in extinguishing the flames. Some having rolled out a cask of porter with the intention of drinking it, others staved it in, and spilled the contents on the ground. A blackfellow being detected stealing a ball belonging to the bowling-alley was severely punished, and the ball thrown into the flames.
The horses were taken out of the stable, and the sheep and pigs out of the yard. The stable was then fired. Meanwhile, in the main building the furniture was being completely destroyed. Several members of the establishment endeavored to save some of the articles, by throwing them out of the window, and carrying them aside, but they were all afterwards destroyed by the fire. The property of the servants was, however, respected and carried to a place of safety. The instruments of the musicians, including a pianoforte, were saved. The liquor in the bar was run off and wasted, without any attempt to use it. One fellow got hold of Mrs. Bentley's jewel-box, and with an exclamation about the box, pitched it into the flames. When the main building was nearly consumed, a striking sight was presented. The weather-boarding and shingles of the roof, being thin and perishable, disappeared first, leaving the joists and ridge-pole glowing vividly in the sky. To the onlookers at a distance it seemed for a few moments like ribs of fire supporting a fiery keel.
"Several tents and stores on the opposite side of the road caught fire, and were consumed. A fine new ballroom, running at right angles to the main building of the hotel, also caught fire, and burned slowly, the flames in this case creeping against the wind. While the ruins of the other buildings were smouldering, the mob tore up the fence, and threw it into the flames. A dray and shay-cart were also run into the flames. It being stated that the latter did not belong to Mr. Bentley, it was at some risk rescued; but on further enquiry it was ascertained to be his property, and immediately run into the burning mass and totally consumed.
About three hours after the commencement of the proceedings, and about two hours after the first application of fire, there remained nothing of the once only too famous Eureka Hotel but the glowing embers and the dismantled chimneys.
When all the property of the obnoxious Bentley had been destroyed, the cool, determined spirit of vengeance which had hitherto marked the proceedings gave way to the drunken revelry of the rabble. The hot ashes were ransacked for bottles of ale and spirits with as much eagerness as could have been displayed on another Golden Point or Specimen Hill.
There was only one man taken by the police, and he was rescued on the way to the Camp. Great excitement prevailed in the Camp last night. Several reports came, to the effect that the diggers were coming in great strength to take Mr. Bentley, and there was a force under arms all night.
The administration of justice, it is apparent, has received a severe blow in this district; and it is entirely to be attributed to the inconsistent, and, to the public, insulting decision of the Bench on Thursday last. With the evidence brought before them, and aware, moreover, of the well-known character of Mr. Bentley's establishment, to decide "that there was not the shadow of a case against him, and that he was honorably discharged," seemed to the public so inconsistent with facts, and so contrary to justice, as to excite a universal feeling of indignation, which found vent in the terrible outburst of yesterday.
A petition to His Excellency Sir Charles Hotham, requesting him to institute another investigation into the case, is about to be sent round for signature. I enclose a copy.
The late James Scobie, whose unfortunate death has given rise to all these proceedings, was a native of Scotland, and was much respected throughout these diggings. I understand that he was related, being either first or second cousin to Captain Hall, who was so well known in the Chinese war, and who has lately been distinguishing himself so much by his gallantry in the Baltic.
To His Excellency Sir Charles Hotham, Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony of Victoria, &c, &c, &c, &c. The petition of the undersigned inhabitants of Ballaarat humbly sheweth, —
That your petitioners feeling dissatisfied with the manner in which justice has been administered in regard to the death of one James Scobie, who was brutally murdered near Bentley's Eureka Hotel on the morning of the 7th inst., feel bound to lay some of the principal features of the case before your Excellency.
The deceased James Scobie, in company with one Peter Martin, seeing a light in the Eureka Hotel when passing about one o'clock on the above morning, sought for admission in order to have something to drink. In doing so a portion of a window was broken. Not obtaining admittance, they proceeded towards the tent of the deceased. When about eighty yards from the hotel they heard a noise behind them, and turning back to see the cause of it, Martin states they met two or three men and one woman. That one of the men had in his hand a weapon, which he supposed to be a battle-axe. The individual holding this weapon he believed to be Bentley, the landlord of the Eureka Hotel. He also heard the woman say, referring to Scobie, the deceased, "This is the man that broke the window." At this time, Martin was knocked down and rendered insensible. On recovering, he went up to deceased, whom he found unable to speak, and on assistance being brought, he was found to be quite dead.
It may be necessary to inform your Excellency that the night was perfectly clear and moonlight.
Between the Eureka Hotel and the spot where Scobie was murdered, and within about twenty- five yards of and almost directly opposite to a back entrance of the hotel, lives a woman and her son named Walshe. The boy is about ten years old, and remarkably intelligent. He deposed that having heard two men pass the tent, he very shortly afterwards heard two or three men and a woman follow, apparently coming from the hotel, or some place near to it. Looking through a hole in the tent, he saw two men, one much stouter than the other; the stouter man he believed to be Bentley. That he heard one of the party lift something, which he susposed to be a spade, from a corner of the tent. Shortly afterwards he heard a voice say, "How dare you break my window?" or to that effect. Then he heard a scuffle, and a blow given. He swears to the best of his knowledge and belief, that the voice was that of Bentley's wife. The parties returning towards the Eureka Hotel dropped the supposed spade. He then saw them proceed towards a back door of the Eureka Hotel. The boy's mother swears distinctly that she heard a voice say, "How dare you break my window?" and to the best of her belief this was the voice of Bentley's wife. In every other particular she corroborates the evidence of her son.
The evidence of these three witnesses was given with great reserve and caution, and therefore in the opinion of your petitioners is entitled to particular weight and consideration.
Your petitioners consider that the evident tendency of these impartial depositions is to implicate Bentley, his wife, and some person or persons connected with the Eureka Hotel.
The only evidence brought forward to exonerate them was that of the men named George Bassar, Everett Gud, and Henry Green.
George Bassar is a butcher, living near Bentley's hotel. The value of this witness's evidence may be known by the fact of his positively swearing "that no person could leave the hotel without his seeing them." Yet, on cross-examination, he was obliged to confess that persons could go in and out of the back door without his knowledge.
Everett Gud, the second witness, is the reputed brother-in-law of Bentley, manager of his bar and bowling alley, and lives in the hotel, and of course liable to suspicion, as one concerned in the murder.
The third witness, Henry Green, has for a considerable time been an inmate of the hotel, and was there on the night of the murder, and of course equally liable to suspicion.
The coroner's inquest was held on the day of the murder. Your petitioners being dissatisfied with the proceedings at that inquest, a number of them waited upon the authorities the following day, in order to have a further inquiry. On the following morning, Bentley and two other members of his establishment were arrested, admitted to bail, and the case remanded for three days. During this period, the accused parties and their witnesses had every opportunity of communicating with each other. The decision of the Bench of Magistrates was, that "There is not the shadow of a case against Mr. Bentley, and that he was honorably discharged."
The other accused were also discharged at same time.
Your petitioners are strongly of opinion, that instead of the magistrates dismissing the case, it should have been sent before a jury. Your petitioners are borne out in this view of the case by the authority of Lord Denman, (Magistrates' Manual, page 21,) who states, "if witnesses for the defence contradict those for the prosecution in material points, then the case would be properly sent to a jury to ascertain the truth of the statements of each party."
Your petitioners beg to state, that not only the decision, but also the manner in which the case was conducted, both by the magistrates, and the coroner, has strongly tended to destroy the confidence hitherto placed in them by the public.
Your petitioners humbly trust that your Excellency will direct the necessary measures to be taken, to have a further and more satisfactory investigation of the case, and at the same time, beg to express a hope, that in order to elicit the truth, and further the ends of justice, your Excellency will direct a suitable reward to be offered for the conviction of the murderers.
Trusting that your Excellency will be pleased to attribute the object of your petitioners to its real motive, namely a love of order and justice, and that your Excellency will graciously grant their request.
Your petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray, &c.[15]

Inspector of Powder Magazines.—The Gazette notifies the appointment of Maurice Frederick Ximenes, Superintendent of Police, to make quarterly inspections of the powder magazines on the goldfields of Victoria.[16]

DEATH. XIMENES.— On the 3rd January, at Windsor, Henry, only son of the late Annie and Maurice Frederick Ximenes, superintendent of police, and loving fiance of Edith Morrow. At rest. [17]

Possibly related

INSOLVENT DEBTORS' COURT, Saturday. May 8. 1841.
Lieutenant Henry Ximenes, bite of the 16th regiment of foot, who originally arrived in this Colony upon two years leave of absence, but, whose name has been erased from the late Army List just received, having sold out, appeared to claim his discharge under the Insolvent Act. The Insolvent handed - In the following paper: — "Previously to leaving England In the year 1840, I gave my father authority to dispose of my commission as an ensign in her Majesty's service, and he received the proceeds, which would amount to £450; 'I believe he has received this money and he has applied it in payment of a larger sum of money which I owe him for money lent and paid by him, for me, In India and England. 'I am, from what I have been informed, entitled, under the will of my uncle, Sir Maurices Ximenes, deceased, to a contingent remainder In-tail-expectant, on the death of Mrs Hamner, the wide of Colonel Hamner, both of whom are now living without Issue, to certain real estate in Devonshire Place, Middlesex, England, and Bear-place, Berkshire, but I do not know the precise annual rents and profits thereof. I am 'also entitled to a contingent remainder under the same will, to certain other real estate at Bear-Ash, Berkshire, on the death of my mother, Eliza Ximenes; but this estate, I am informed, is liable to be defeated in the event of my death before my mother, the remainder being limited to the heirs male of my father, at the time of my mother's death. The precise annual rents and profits thereof, and my title to these estates, I only know by hearsay, but this is the best account I can give of them. HENRY XIMENES ... [18]

On the 22nd instant, a few hours after its birth, Henry, infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Ximenes. [19]

See also

David Blair

William Corkhill

Robert Evans

John D'Ewes

Eureka Hotel

Alexander Grant

John Gray

Robert Rede

James Scobie

James Thomson


Henry Westerby

Further Reading

Blake, Gregory, To Pierce the Tyrant's Heart, Australian Military History Publications, 2009.


  1. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  2. Horsham Times, 15 June 1883.
  3. Horsham Times, 15 June 1883.
  4. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  5. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  6. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  7. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  8. Report of the Board appointed to Enquire into Circumstances Connected with the Late Disturbance at Ballarat, John Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne, 21 November 1854.
  9. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  10. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  11. VPRS 937 Unit 350
  12. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  13. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  14. Horsham Times, 15 June 1883.
  15. The Argus, 23 October 1854.
  16. Bendigo Advertiser, 9 November 1874.
  17. The Argus, 6 January 1920.
  18. The Australian, 11 May 1841.
  19. Sydney Morning Herald, 23 November 1842.

External links

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Caption, Reference.