Andrew McIntyre

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Walter E. Pidgeon, Illustration from The Eureka Stockade by Raffaello Carboni, Sunnybrook Press, 1942, offset print.
Art Gallery of Ballarat, purchased 1994.

Graham, just found 2 Andrew McIntyres so this page needs restarting. You will find the other one at Andrew McIntyre (2)

Background

Andrew McIntyre was born in 1828. He married Margaret Kerr on 19 May 1850 at Gorbals, Scotland.[1]

Margaret Eureka McIntyre was born in a tent on 22 February 1855. The family returned to Scotland by September 1859. Possibly Andrew returned to Australia and lived at Ebbard Street, North Ballarat.[2]

Andrew McIntyre died is thought to have died in June 1912, aged 84, and was buried at the Ballaarat Old Cemetery on 15 June.[3]

Goldfields Involvement, 1854

Walter E. Pidgeon, Illustration from The Eureka Stockade by Raffaello Carboni, Sunnybrook Press, 1942, offset print.
Art Gallery of Ballarat, purchased 1994.

By 1854 Andrew McIntyre was a miner at Ballarat. He is often confused with another man of the same name who was arrested for the burning of the Eureka Hotel. On 29 March 1855 he wrote a letter describing the Eureka Stockade events to a friend, Mr A.C. Kerr.[4]


TRANSCRIPT OF LETTER DATED 29th MARCH 1855 – BAKERY HILL

Dear Brother
I have no doubt I any have got many cursings from you and others, for not answering letters, now long past due and perhaps doubly cursed when you learned the cause of then not being answered, to plead justification to you at the present time is not my intention, but merely to make a statement of the facts of case and then you may judge for yourself.
The General facts are now all over the world, and no doubt you will have earned them long ago, but still a few particulars as regards myself may not be altogether uninteresting to you. I don’t think it necessary to enter into the details of the gross Maladministration of the offices of the Colony generally, these are also are patent to the world, but as regards the Gold Fields, and particularly Ballarat where I have had the best opportunity of judging[.] I would say a few words.
From the construction of the Legislative Assembly of this Colony we have had the worst laws in the world palmed upon us and from the same cause still worst carried out, we had a lot of Boys[.] half military[.] half school Boys as Magistrates[.] JP’s (not at all inaccessible to “Tip”) to carry out what were in themselves “Bad Laws” [.]. Such Individuals had been the lords of Ballaarat up to the time when I appear on the stage. “Tip” was the ruling passion with the Ballaarat Camp Officials from the highest to the lowest. The chief Magistrate of Ballaarat had shares in nearly all the Hotels on Ballaarat, which he had for granting them Licences. But he was more particularly interested in Bently’s[.] In the Hotel has been committed a great many Robberies and several people found dead near the Place[.], all of which was somehow or other hushed up, Bently himself was known to be a doubly convicted felon, although a great companion of the Commissioner’s [,] in whose house they were nightly[.]
On the morning of the 7th October last a Scotchman named “James Scobie” from Auchterlarder was murdered near the Hotel, and on the inquest it was discovered that Bently was one of the Murderers, he of course was examined at Ballaarat and you can guess the result, the chief Magistrate (Dewes) presiding, with sufficient evidence to commit him for trial[.], he was discharged, and at the Sametime told he ft the Court without the slightest imputation on his conduct or Blemish on his character. This was considered by the people of Ballaarat as a direct insult, and a meeting was called for [,] to be held on the 17th October, on the spot, where the man was murdered. I intended to have attended the meeting, but my mates would not go unless all the holes around about dro]p]ed work and went, they all agreed[,] but one or two, so it was knocked on the head. After Dinner I went down the Hole but found it was giving way. I came up to the top for timber to repair it, just as I reached the top I heard a fearful noise, and went with the crowd towards Bently’s Hotel [,] about ½ [half] mile from my hole[,] it turned out that [the] cause of shouting was Bently flying off on one of the Commissioner’s horses, I reached the Hotel when there was about 1,000 persons present, [but] the meeting was over[.]
All the Military and Police were stationed around the Hotel to guard it, the Commissioners were up in one of the Broken windows trying to pacify the people, telling them they had ben diggers themselves, and they would see justice done to the diggers and a lot of Other “Bosh”, I mounted one of the windows alongside the Commissioners, and was cried upon by the diggers to speak, I spoke for a few minutes against the conduct of the officials on Bently’s examination, but never said, nor never had any intention to advise them to take the law into their own hands.
In the confusion and noise, they may have misunderstood me, however before I got done Bottles, stones, Books and all sorts of missiles came flying at the Commissioners’ heads, Resident Commissioner Reed Robert Rede then handed me his whip and requested me to try and get them to desist. (the whip was his scepre or Baton of Office.) I did not believe at the time in destroying the property as Bently had a good many creditors that must become sufferers, I tried to get them to desist [from] destroying the property, but in a minute a cry of fire was raised, and I went round with Mr Reed, The fire had just been lighted and I drew down the linning from the Bowling Alley (Paper and Canvas) no water being handy, and threw [it] on the flames and trampled on it, till I burnt myself, but failed in extinguishing the flames, I was expecting some of the Police or Soldier might say that I had been hastning on the flames, and came back and told Mr Reed so, his answer was [“] there is no danger[,] I can swear you have done your duty like a man,[“] I assisted in saving property and guarding it when saved[.] in half an hour the whole affair was in a heap of ashes (valued £27,000) Mr Reed and Captain Carter, and I had a nibbler of rum when all was over and I [was] going off to my work, as I proceeded, I was arrested by two sergeants of Police. [They] arrested me and I said I would go [,] but wanted to see their Warrant for my Apprehension [.] they said they had none[.] then I said I would be damed if I would go till they got one [.]the moment I said that the Diggers round about rushed and the Police and shuved me away, I went home, next day I intimated to parties about the Hole, my intention of proceeding to the camp, to see what they wanted with me[.] they volunteered to go with me in a body but I only took one[,] My mate, and went up and asked Mr Reed if he Remembered his words[.] he did not deny it, he and us went to Captain [-----s] and he had nothing to say against me. Reed told me I might go, saw the parties that arrested me but they said nothing. [During the] next two days there was reinforcements of troops arriving from Melbourne and on Friday night one of the detectives came to inform me as a friend to get out of the way as I was going to be arrested in the morning.
I went home and went to bed in the expectation of being roused in the morning, in which I was not disappointed. About two in the morning we heard then marching around the tent[.] I allowed then to remain there for two hours, then went out and asked them in to have a nible, there was 10 Detectives and the Sergeant Major of Police, but before we went in the diggings we were joined by three troops of mounted Police (a fairish escort). All the police and Soldiers had been under arms all night in case of a second rescue, I was bought up for examination at 9 0’clock and committed to take my trial in Geelong on the following Thursday, (this was on Saturday) [.] as I was taken prisoner at 4 o’clock few knew anything about it, but as the day advanced they collected, then held a meeting, where they agreed to go and demand Fletcher and I out on Bail and if refused to have us out by force (they had previously refused Bail for me). The committee then formed tryed to prevent the crowd from approaching too near the camp while the deputation was making arrangements with the authorities for to get us out on bail, but they were so long that the crowd rushed up to the points of the Bayonet and swords of the troops[.] there was about 7,000 diggers present[.] most of them armed[.] one Irishman had 6 six Barrelled revolvers in his breast[.] in all 36 shot. There was one man wounded through the accidental discharge of a pistol. I was ultimately Bailed out in £1,000 by parties whom I had never seen before. When I came out the people wanted to carry me shoulder high and had a German band there but I got them advised to desist such a Demonstration, amongst the first Committee was Fred Vern (now Colonel Vern) [.] you will recollect of me writing to you when he was a mate of mine of Lord ‘God knows who’ he was a witness to all my actions at the Hotel and as such he was subpoenaed to Geelong as well as “Captain Ross” of whom I will speak ofterwards, we had benefits at the Theatre, Assembly Rooms etc and in the interim on Wednesday. Fletcher and I and 12 witnesses started for Geelong in the conveyances with silk flags (that were presented to us as starting) flying with the words on them Liberty and Justice for All [.] on the Thursday we appeared at Geelong for trail, but they would not try us there but Remanded us to appear at Melbourne on the 15th Nov. I had to find new securities, and got a Jew in Geelong for one and Mr Holyoake, a brother of George Jacobs as the other, who was also a witness in the case, We came back to Ballaarat [and] had other meetings where the diggers determined that we should not go of[f] Ballaarat and but for ourselves would have taken us prisoners and kept us themselves[.] we however started for Melbourne on 13th Nov but were not tried till the 20th[.] it took from Ten in the morning till 9 at night to try us. I could have easily got out of it, but for the counsel taking too political a view of the matter, and pleading Justification and not examining my principal witness[.] I had one of the Commissioners swore I was the most efficient man for saving the property that was there, the other would have cleared me of the matter, but the counsel just made a fool of him, so that I was brought in guilty – with a special rcommendation to mercy on account of my praiseworthy conduct while the place was burning[.] we were sentenced the following morning [.] me there months, Fletcher 4 + Westerby 6 months imprisonment[.] the Judge remarking that as he believed all were men of good character he would not degrade us by giving us labour[.] When the news reached Ballaarat that we had got sentenced they sent down a deputation to the Governor to “demand” our release, the Governor would not accede to the word ‘demand’ ( a very absurd word) so the deputation went back to Ballaarat where a meeting was held on 29th Nov[.] Strong resolutions were put and carried and at the windup they made bonfires of their licences and vowed they would take out no more, in the meantime the Governor sent all the policemen and soldiers in the country to Ballaarat[.] The marines[,] sailors and cannons were taken out of the men of War and dispatched also, the day after the meeting they sent around troopers with drawn swords and soldiers with loaded muskets in skirmishing order to collect licences[.] the diggers Joe’d and threw bottles & stones a them when the troopers fired on them[.] one or two of the diggers that had firearms on them fired back on them[.] the diggers met again in the afternoon and agreed to arm themselves [They] went round all the stores collecting firearms etc, horses, saddles + Bridles and retired to the Eureka and erected a stockade[.] meantime they had Barricaded all round the Government Camp, even the Goal in Melbourne was all Barricaded with sand bags and troopers guarding it, at first there were about 1500 men in the insurgent mob but by Saturday morn the most of them [,] thinking nothing was going to be done[,] went home and in the evening there was not over 200 in the stockade[.] of course the Government spies reported how things stood at the camp so they dispatched about 500 mounted troopers + Soldiers before day-break on Sunday morning (3 dec.) few of the diggers were […….] They showed the stuff they were made off ...[5]

Post 1854 Experiences

McIntyre lived at Ballarat, and was recorded on the 1855 Electoral Roll, under the electoral qualification of Miner’s Right.[6] McIntyre’s daughter, Margaret Eureka[7] (later Lady Fairweather), was born on 26 February 1855,[8] in a tent soon after the fight at the stockade. At the time of Margaret Eureka's birth, her father was still in gaol in Melbourne. [9]

Andrew McIntryre wrote a letter describing events, which was dated 29 March 1855, which has been preserved and is still in existence in 1998. McIntyre supported Lalor’s electoral nomination. He is thought to have returned to Glascow in comfortable circumstances, but an Andrew McIntyre was buried at the Ballaarat Old Cemetery. (GN25)[10]

Newsworthy

THE BALLARAT DEPUTATION.
On Monday His Excellency received Messrs. Black, Humphreys, and Kennedy, the three gentlemen appointed as a deputation from this locality to "demand" the liberation of Fletcher, M'Intyre, and Westbury, convicted of burning of the Eureka Hotel. The deputation handed His Excellency certain representations on paper, agreed to at a meeting of the diggers, and a prospectus of the Ballarat Reform League, by which the political and administrative claims of the diggers were brought in review. At the outset of the proceedings, however, His Excellency said the deputation had used a term which, as the representative of majesty, he could not allow, viz., the word " demand." and asked if the deputation " demanded" the liberation of the men convicted of burning the Eureka Hotel. Mr. Black had no other explanation to offer than that they had stated their business in the terms furnished them by the diggers. The diggers did not consider the three convicted men more guilty than others present at the fire, and justified the act of burning the hotel by the fact that the magistracy at Ballarat had become so corrupt as to require some such signal act to recall them to a sense of their duty; and if the constitutional mode of petitioning His Excellency had been adopted, time would thereby have been afforded for the escape of the offenders.
His Excellency said that the deputation must be aware that whenever the Government heard of the acquittal of Bentley, a new trial was ordered. On the instant, orders were issued, and the most active measures taken to apprehend Bentley, and try him again. A government did not identify itself in all cases with the verdict of its own officials. In this case it judged that the verdict was not correct, and ordered a new trial immediately.
Mr. Black said that the announcement by Mr. Johnstone that he had forwarded the depositions to the Attorney-General, and that he, with the approval of His Excellency, had ordered a new trial, and that the parties should be re-arrested, had been received by the meeting with a great cheer.
His Excellency said that the diggers were taking the law into their own hands, and setting aside the most important principle of the British Constitution.
Mr. Humphreys thought His Excellency might extend an act of grace to the:prisoners.
His Excellency said he could not depart from the verdict of the jury. After a patient and careful hearing, the jury had decided. That decision all were bound to respect, and were he to depart from it he should inflict the greatest possible blow on the welfare of the colony.
Mr. Kennedy entreated His Excellency to allow the men to return with them and then any further riot and disturbance would cease.
His Excellency thought the course suggested subversive of all government, and, as the Queen's representative, it was impossible for him to do what they asked. He further remarked that, as to the management of the gold fields, he had selected the most liberal and popular men to form a commission of enquiry, and was prepared to carry out any measure of reform which that com- mission may recommend, as far as his power went; and he expressly desired the deputation to tell the diggers that he was most anxious to give full justice to the diggers as well as any other class in the community, and he hopped they would give him credit for such intentions, but that at present his power of doing so was limited.
The Colonial Secretary and Attorney-General were present during the interview, and occasionally took part in the discussion.
At the close of the interview, the question was put— "If a memorial is presented on behalf of M'Intyre and the other prisoners, to Your Excellency, may we indulge in the hope that its prayer would be granted?" His Excellency replied — "Present your Memorial."
The interview lasted for some time, and the deputation expressed their high satisfaction at the candid manner in which their questions were answered, and an im- pression that the Governor is an honest man, and will eventually do the diggers justice.[11]


THE EUREKA VETERAN. - He entered the bar at the Bushman's Arms at Sheeptrack, and dropped his swag behind the dour, then he looked at the young miners gathered at the bar, and sighed heavily, lie passed his hand over his mourn, and sighed again. Moi body seemed to be deeply interested in him except Cadden, the proprietor, who was eyeing him suspiciously. The others were all interested in their beer".Good day," said the newcomer." It's a dreadful dry, tryin' sort o' day fer travlin'." One or two answered "good day" in a dubious way, the others were not disposed to be friendly. "I see none o' youse blokes know me," continued the stranger. "I'm Andy M'Intyre." "An' who the flames is Andy M'Intyre when he's at home asked one youthful miner. "What!" cried M'Intyre, "you an Australian and a miner, and you ain't heard tell o' Andy McIntyre? ' Wybrow looked a trifle abashed. Perhaps there was something to be ashamed of. "Who is Andy McIntyre?" he said, more respectfully. "Andy M'Intyre's the man what was Peter Lalor's right-hand man at the Eureka Stockade. Andy M'Intyre's the man who fought light through, got a bullet in his side, and then carried Peter Lalor off the field of battle, cutt n' his way through two hundred soldiers. Now you know who Andy M'Intyre is." "Oh, yes," said Wybrow, with diffidence, " I Lalor put me up to it. 'We must rouse the miners, Andy,' he says, 'we must get the honest diggers to fight fer their rights and liberties. There ain't any class in Australia more deserve of their rights and liberties than the honest miners,' sez he."Ave another drink, matey," said Carrol. Andy McIntvre had another drink, and then told the young miners a lot more ventures at, the Stockade. "You'll have one along me won't you?" said Holloway. Andy had one with Holloway' and waxed more eloquent. The miners learnt more of the history of the riots than they had heard before in the whole course of their lives. Each miner thought it his duty to shout for - the hero. Then, when the crowd "had run dry;" -Andy's eloquence tailed off, and he took up his swag, and bade them an affectionate adieu. Presently, Sid Collins the veteran entered the bar. "You orter been here a minute ago," said Wybrow. "Did you see that bloke what went out just afore you comc in ? He was at the Ballarat riots. He's been tellin' us all about it." "I saw him. About thirty years old, wasn't he ?" "About that." "Then didn't it strike you he was a sort o' 'uman miracle ?" "How's that?" "Why, he was at the Ballarat riots, twenty year afore he was born." Then the young miners silently drifted out.[12]


Family

Death of Dame Margaret V Fairweather.
BALLARAT, Monday. — An interesting link with- Eureka was broken by the death at Glasgow on 4th August of Dame Margaret Eureka Melulyre Fairweather, wife of Sir Wallace Fairweather.
The "Glasgow Herald" in reporting her death, says: — Lady Fairweather was born in Australia, and was the daughter of Mr. Andy Mclntyre, of Glasgow, who was one of the pioneers in gold mining in that Dominion. He settled at Ballarat, Grenvllle County, in Victoria, where, in the fifties, trouble arose between the mining community and the authorities. This episode is believed to be one of the few occasions in the history of Australian gold mining in which bloodshed was involved. The trouble centred on Eureka Hill, where miners had erected a stockade, and it was within the enclosure, while the firing was going on, that Lady Fairweather was born. On that account Eureka was included in her name. She married Sir Wallace Fairweather included in her name. She married Sir Wallace Fairweather in 1877.[13]

See also

Andrew McIntyre (2)

Richard Ireland

Further Reading

Corfield, J., Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.

References

  1. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  2. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  3. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  4. Corfield, J.,Wickham, D., & Gervasoni, C. The Eureka Encyclopaedia, Ballarat Heritage Services, 2004.
  5. Transcribed by Christine Stancliffe (Note that original spelling mistakes have been left as written)
  6. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  7. Beggs Sunter, Anne, The Significance of Eureka: Myths and Legends
  8. Beggs Sunter, Anne, The Significance of Eureka: Myths and Legends
  9. Beggs Sunter, Anne, The Significance of Eureka: Myths and Legends
  10. Wickham, D., Gervasoni, C. & Phillipson, W., Eureka Research Directory, Ballarat Heritage Services, 1999.
  11. The Age, 29 November 1854.
  12. Melbourne Punch, 9 August 1906.
  13. The Age, 10 September 1935.

External links

http://www.ballaratgenealogy.org.au/art/1855-let.htm